REDUCING EMISSIONS WITH MSAR®
MSAR® offers enhanced combustion performance when compared to conventional fuel oil due to its inherent physical characteristics; pre-atomised micro fuel droplets suspended in water.
This results in less ash and black carbon particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) reductions of typically 30%, which are significant in improving local air quality and lowering the global warming potential of fuel oil use.
MSAR® has full compatibility with Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems, EGCS or “Scrubbers”, which can be used in marine and power applications to reduce emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx), NOx and PM.
The emulsification of hydrocarbons to produce an “oil-in-water” fuel is especially beneficial when burning heavier residual fuels with more challenging combustion characteristics such as higher asphaltene levels.
The MSAR® process results in a ‘pre-atomised’ fuel with a particle size range of 5-10 microns (µm) typically, which is similar in diameter to a red blood cell, and much smaller than is possible through conventional oil atomisation (which results in 80-100µm at best).
When a fuel is combusted, the burn occurs on the droplet surface. The micro-sized MSAR® fuel droplets have orders of magnitude higher surface area than conventional HFO enabling rapid and complete combustion, as illustrated above. This results in enhanced fuel efficiency and environmental benefits.
REDUCED PARTICULATES & BLACK SOOT
MSAR® will burn down to the fuel ash, with virtually no black soot remaining. This makes the production of particulate matter insensitive to combustion air levels and asphaltene levels in the fuel, thereby offering the opportunity to reduce excess air and further enhance efficiency.
In the ash samples shown below it can be seen that high levels of unburnt carbon, which give the ash its black colour, remain in the conventional baseline Fuel Oil No. 6 ash, whereas the ash from the MSAR® samples are defined by the inorganic products. The inorganic nature of this residual ash enhances its suitability for recovery of valuable metal constituents, such as vanadium, which is a valuable component for steel manufacturing and in redox batteries for power storage, as well as nickel.
As MSAR® fuel is extremely stable, it can be distributed optimally in the combustion zone. Water in the fuel immediately evaporates, causing secondary atomisation and distribution. This water also reduces combustion temperatures (by over 100°C), typically reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by over 20% and in some cases up to 50%, as illustrated below.
Emissions of carbon dioxide and sulphur oxides are largely a function of the hydrocarbon used to manufacture MSAR® and generally comparable with conventional fuel oil.
Pre-atomisation means that MSAR® fuel can be combusted at lower pre-heat temperatures (~60°C) when compared with fuel oil combustion (typically 120-160°C), further reducing energy consumption.
MSAR® fuel can be stored and transported at ambient temperatures of 20-30°C, compared with fuel oil that requires heating to 50-100°C depending on the viscosity grade. As a result, the energy requirements for handling and transporting MSAR® are lower than fuel oil.
REDUCED ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS & IMPACT:
Operations procedures and contingency plans developed for fuel oil are generally suitable, and where necessary adapted, for MSAR® purposes. In terms of accidental spillages, MSAR® poses fewer environmental risks to those of fuel oil, of which some 450 million tonnes is handled annually, and precautions against spillage are similar. Crude and fuel oil spills at sea tend to rise and then float on the water surface to form suffocating oil slicks, to which chemicals are typically applied retrospectively to disperse the slick. Should an MSAR® spill occur in the ocean, the fuel self-disperses readily in the body of water, due to MSAR® being an oil in water emulsion, the presence of surfactants and the hydrocarbon being comprised of micron-sized droplets.
The toxicity of MSAR® is largely a function of the refinery residue or heavy crude oil feedstock, which is generally lower than fuel oils that contain lighter hydrocarbons that are more toxic.
Water for the emulsification process can be derived from a number of sources including standard utility water, desalinated water, oil-contaminated wastewater or sour water stripping streams that are conventionally sent to water treatment, or disposal by oil refineries.
EGCS (“SCRUBBER”) COMPATIBLE
Modern combustion and emissions abatement technologies are today increasingly installed in industrial facilities to reduce the impact of emissions to the environment and human health. MSAR® fuel is fully compliant with such technologies and has favourable features that reduce some of the environmental impacts from combustion including NOx, PM/soot and ash.